Controlled Natural Language (CNL)

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A Controlled Natural Language (CNL) is a human language that is a controlled language.



  • (Wikipedia, 2020) ⇒ Retrieved:2020-6-2.
    • Controlled natural languages (CNLs) are subsets of natural languages that are obtained by restricting the grammar and vocabulary in order to reduce or eliminate ambiguity and complexity. Traditionally, controlled languages fall into two major types: those that improve readability for human readers (e.g. non-native speakers),

      and those that enable reliable automatic semantic analysis of the language.

      The first type of languages (often called "simplified" or "technical" languages), for example ASD Simplified Technical English, Caterpillar Technical English, IBM's Easy English, are used in the industry to increase the quality of technical documentation, and possibly simplify the (semi-)automatic translation of the documentation. These languages restrict the writer by general rules such as "Keep sentences short", "Avoid the use of pronouns", "Only use dictionary-approved words", and "Use only the active voice". The second type of languages have a formal syntax and semantics, and can be mapped to an existing formal language, such as first-order logic. Thus, those languages can be used as knowledge representation languages, [1] and writing of those languages is supported by fully automatic consistency and redundancy checks, query answering, etc.

  1. Schwitter, Rolf. "Controlled natural languages for knowledge representation." Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Posters. Association for Computational Linguistics, 2010.



  • (Lewis & Spärck Jones, 1995) ⇒ David D. Lewis, and Karen Spärck Jones. (1995). “Natural Language Processing for Information Retrieval.” In: Communications of the ACM, 39(1). doi:10.1145/234173.234210.
    • QUOTE: There are many types of indexing languages. Terms may be the same terms appearing in the text to be indexed (natural language) or may be limited to those from an artificial or controlled language whose design involves many of the concerns associated with treating meaning representation for NLP.1 Indexing languages vary according to several factors: