(Redirected from learning)
- See: Imitative Learning Method, Learning Act, Preference, Learning Subject Area.
- (Wikipedia, 2020) ⇒ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/learning Retrieved:2020-12-10.
- Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, attitudes, and preferences.  The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals, and some machines; there is also evidence for some kind of learning in certain plants.  Some learning is immediate, induced by a single event (e.g. being burned by a hot stove), but much skill and knowledge accumulate from repeated experiences. The changes induced by learning often last a lifetime, and it is hard to distinguish learned material that seems to be "lost" from that which cannot be retrieved. Human learning starts at birth (it might even start before ) and continues until death as a consequence of ongoing interactions between people and their environment. The nature and processes involved in learning are studied in many fields, including educational psychology, neuropsychology, experimental psychology, and pedagogy. Research in such fields has led to the identification of various sorts of learning. For example, learning may occur as a result of habituation, or classical conditioning, operant conditioning or as a result of more complex activities such as play, seen only in relatively intelligent animals.  Learning may occur consciously or without conscious awareness. Learning that an aversive event can't be avoided nor escaped may result in a condition called learned helplessness. There is evidence for human behavioral learning prenatally, in which habituation has been observed as early as 32 weeks into gestation, indicating that the central nervous system is sufficiently developed and primed for learning and memory to occur very early on in development. Play has been approached by several theorists as a form of learning. Children experiment with the world, learn the rules, and learn to interact through play. Lev Vygotsky agrees that play is pivotal for children's development, since they make meaning of their environment through playing educational games. For Vygotsky, however, play is the first form of learning language and communication and the stage where a child begins to understand rules and symbols.
- Richard Gross, Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behaviour 6E, Hachette UK, .
- Karban, R. (2015). Plant Learning and Memory. In: Plant Sensing and Communication. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, pp. 31–44, .
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- Jungle Gyms: The Evolution of Animal Play
1.1 Non-associative learning 1.1.1 Habituation 1.1.2 Sensitization 1.2 Active learning 1.3 Associative learning 1.3.1 Operant conditioning 1.3.2 Classical conditioning 1.3.3 Observational learning 1.3.4 Imprinting 1.4 Play 1.5 Enculturation 1.6 Episodic learning 1.7 Multimedia learning 1.8 E-learning and augmented learning 1.9 Rote learning 1.10 Meaningful learning 1.11 Evidence-based learning 1.12 Formal learning 1.13 Nonformal learning 1.14 Informal learning 1.15 Nonformal learning and combined approaches 1.16 Tangential learning 1.17 Dialogic learning 1.18 Incidental learning