1998 CiteSeerAnAutoCitatIndexSystem

Jump to: navigation, search

Subject Headings: CiteSeer, Citation Indexing; Citation Context; Literature Search; Bibliometrics.


Cited By



We present CiteSeer: an autonomous citation indexing system which indexes academic literature in electronic format (e.g. Postscript files on the Web). CiteSeer understands how to parse citations, identify citations to the same paper in different formats, and identify the context of citations in the body of articles. CiteSeer provides most of the advantages of traditional (manually constructed) citation indexes (e.g. the ISI citation indexes), including: literature retrieval by following citation links (e.g. by providing a list of papers that cite a given paper), the evaluation and ranking of papers, authors, journals, etc. based on the number of citations, and the identification of research trends. CiteSeer has many advantages over traditional citation indexes, including the ability to create more up-to-date databases which are not limited to a preselected set of journals or restricted by journal publication delays, completely autonomous operation with a corresponding reduction in cost, and powerful interactive browsing of the literature using the context of citations. Given a particular paper of interest, CiteSeer can display the context of how the paper is cited in subsequent publications. This context may contain a brief summary of the paper, another author’s response to the paper, or subsequent work which builds upon the original article. CiteSeer allows the location of papers by keyword search or by citation links. Papers related to a given paper can be located using common citation information or word vector similarity. CiteSeer will soon be available for public use.


  • Eytan Adar and Jeremy Hylton. On-the-fly hyperlink creation for page images. In: Proceedings of Digital Libraries ’95 -The Second Annual Conference on the Theory and Practice of Digital Libraries, June 1995.
  • T. A. Brooks. Evidence of complex citer motivations. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 37:34–36, 1986.
  • Robert D. Cameron. A universal citation database as a catalyst for reform in scholarly communication. First Monday, 2(4), 1997.
  • S. E. Cozzens. What do citations count? The rhetoric-first model. Scientometrics, 15:437–447, 1989.
  • Blaise Cronin and Herbert W. Snyder. Comparative citation rankings of authors in monographic and journal literature: a study of sociology. Journal of Documentation, 53(3):263–273, 1997.
  • Eugene Garfield. Citation Indexing: Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology, and Humanities. Wiley, New York, 1979.
  • Eugene Garfield. The concept of citation indexing: A unique and innovative tool for navigating the research literature. Current Contents, January 3, 1994.
  • Eugene Garfield. Where was this paper cited? Current Contents, January 31, 1994.
  • G. N. Gilbert. Referencing as persuasian. Social Studies of Science, 7:113–122, 1977.
  • http://www.isinet.com Institute for Science Information 1997 Institute for Scientific Information, 1997.
  • V. I. Levenshtein. Binary codes capable of correcting spurious insertions and deletions of ones (original in Russian). Russian Problemy Peredachi Informatsii, 1:12–25, 1965.
  • M. H. MacRoberts and B. R. MacRoberts. The negational reference: Or the art of dissembling. Social Studies of Science, 14:91–94, 1984.
  • M. F. Porter. An algorithm for suffix stripping. Program, 14:130–137, 3 1980.
  • Gerard Salton. Automatic indexing using bibliographic citations. Journal of Documentation, 27:98–110, 1971.
  • Gerard Salton and Chris Buckley. Term weighting approaches in automatic text retrieval. Tech Report 87 - 81, Department of Computer Science, Cornell University, 1987.
  • Gerard Salton and C.S. Yang. On the specification of term values in automatic indexing. Journal of Documentation, 29:351–372, 1973.
  • H. G. Small. Cited documents as concept symbols. Social Studies of Science, 8(327–340), 1978.
  • Peter Yianilos. The LikeIt intelligent string comparison facility. Technical Report 97-093, NEC Research Institute, 1997.
  • Peter N. Yianilos. Data structures and algorithms for nearest neighbor search in general metric spaces. In: Proceedings of the 4th ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, pages 311–321, 1993.

 AuthorvolumeDate ValuetitletypejournaltitleUrldoinoteyear
1998 CiteSeerAnAutoCitatIndexSystemC. Lee Giles
Kurt D. Bollacker
Steve Lawrence
CiteSeer: An automatic Citation Indexing SystemProceedings of the Third ACM Conference on Digital Librarieshttp://clgiles.ist.psu.edu/pubs/DL98citeseer.pdf1998