2008 ExtendedNamedEntityOntologyWithAttribInf

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Subject Headings: Named Entity Recognition


  • The author in previous work had extended the number of entity types from the small and simplistic set of PERSON, LOCATION, ORGANIZATION, TIME, MONEY to have 120 entity types (often these are subtypes of the larger types).
  • In this paper the author reports the manual addition of attributes to the ~120 entities (e.g. Person.DateOfBirth, Person.Gender, .... )
  • Their work can be found at http://nlp.cs.nyu.edu/ene
  • This work reminded me of the discussion with Martin about automatically discovering an entity's attributes from the text. The data reported in this paper could be our baseline.
  • I asked the author whether he believed that the attributes he extracted could have been automatically extracted. He was not excited by the prospects of automated discovery.

Cited By



  • Named Entities (NE) are regarded as an important type of semantic knowledge in many natural language processing (NLP) applications. Originally, a limited number of NE categories were proposed. In MUC, it was 7 categories - people, organization, location, time, date, money and percentage expressions. However, it was noticed that such a limited number of NE categories is too small for many applications. The author has proposed Extended Named Entity (ENE), which has about 200 categories (Sekine and Nobata 04). During the development of ENE, we noticed that many ENE categories have specific attributes, and those provide very important information for the entities. For example, “rivers” have attributes like “source location”, “outflow”, and “length”. Some such information is essential to “knowing about” the river, while the name is only a label which can be used to refer to the river. Also, such attributes are important information for many NLP applications. In this paper, we report on the design of a set of attributes for ENE categories. We used a bottom up approach to creating the knowledge using a Japanese encyclopedia, which contains abundant descriptions of ENE instances.


  • ENE HP: Extended Named Entity Homepage. http://nlp.cs.nyu.edu/ene
  • OBO HP: The Open Biomedical Ontologies HP: http://www.geneontology.org/
  • SemanticWeb HP: http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/
  • SUMO HP: Suggested Upper Merged Ontology. http://www.ontologyportal.org/
  • Wikipedia HP: http://wikipedia.org
  • C. Fellbaum, editor. WordNet: An Electronic Lexical-Database. MIT Press, 1998.
  • Ralph Grishman, Beth Sundheim (1996). Message Understanding Conference - 6: A Brief History In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, 1996
  • N. Guarino. (1992). Concepts, attributes and arbitrary relations: Some linguistic and ontological criteria for structuring knowledge base. Data and Knowledge Engineering, 8, 249–261.
  • Sanda M. Harabagiu, Dan Moldovan, C. Clark, M. Bowden, J. Williams, and J. Bensley. (2003). “Answer Mining by Combining Extraction Techniques with Abductive Reasoning.” In: Proceedings of TREC 2003.
  • Xin Li and Dan Roth (2002). Learning Question Classifiers. In: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computational Linguistics
  • C. Matuszek, J. Cabral, M. Witbrock, and J. DeOliveira. An introduction to the syntax and content of Cyc. In: Proceedings of AAAISpring Symposium, 2006.

A. Philpot, Eduard Hovy, and Patrick Pantel. (2008). The Omega Ontology. In Huang, C. R., A. Gangemi, A. Lenci, and N. Calzolari (eds), Ontologies and Lexical Resources for Natural Language Processing. Cambridge University Press. Almuhareb, A., Poesio, M. (2004). Attribute-based and Value-based Clustering: An Evaluation, In the Proceedings of Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing. 2004. James Pustejovsky. (1995). The Generative Lexicon. The MIT Press. Satoshi Sekine and Hitoshi Isahara. (2000) IREX: IR and IE evaluation-based project in Japanese In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation ; 2000 Satoshi Sekine and Chikashi Nobata. (2004). Definition, Dictionary and Tagger for Extended Named Entities Forth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, Canaly Island, 2004. Fabian M. Suchanek, Gjergji Kasneci, Gerhard Weikum (2007) YAGO: A Core of Semantic Knowledge Unifying WordNet and Wikipedia, In the Proceedings of 16th International WWW Conference. Naoki Yoshinaga and Kentaro Torisawa. (2007) Open-Domain Attribute-Value Acquisition from Semi-Structured Texts, Proceedings of the Workshop on Ontolex 2007 -- The Lexicon/Ontology Interface held at the fifth International Semantic Web Conference pp. 55-66 Nov., 2007,

 AuthorvolumeDate ValuetitletypejournaltitleUrldoinoteyear
2008 ExtendedNamedEntityOntologyWithAttribInfSatoshi SekineExtended Named Entity Ontology with Attribute InformationProceedings of the 6th Language Resources and Evaluation Conferencehttp://nlp.cs.nyu.edu/sekine/papers/lrec08.pdf2008