Reference Relation

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A reference relation is a semantic relation between a referencer and its referent that a communicating agent ([math]\displaystyle{ A_1 }[/math]) can use to communicate the presence of the referent to a dereferencing agent ([math]\displaystyle{ A_2 }[/math]).



  • (Wikipedia, 2013) ⇒ Retrieved:2013-12-15.
    • Reference is a relation between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object. The first object in this relation is said to refer to the second object. The second object – the one to which the first object refers – is called the referent of the first object.

      The term reference is used in many spheres of human knowledge, adopting shades of meaning particular to the contexts in which it is used.

      References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, [1] spacetime coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an energy projection; but, other concrete and abstract contexts exist as methods of defining references within the scope of the various fields that require an origin, point of departure, or an original form. This includes methods that intentionally hide the reference from some observers, as in cryptography.

      The following sections give specific usages of reference in different subjects.

  • Treanor, Brian, Aspects of alterity: Levinas, Marcel, and the contemporary debate, Fordham University Press, 2006, p.41
  • 2009a

    • (Wiktionary, 2009) ⇒
      • Noun
        • 1. (semantics) A relation between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object.
        • 2. a measurement one can compare to
        • 3. information about a person, provided by someone (a referee) with whom they are well acquainted
        • 4. (academic writing) A previously published written work within academic publishing, used as a source for theory or claims referred to which are used in the text.
        • 5. (programming) An object containing information which refers to data stored elsewhere, as opposed to containing the data itself.


    • (WordNet, 2009) ⇒
      • Noun
        • S: (n) mention, reference (a remark that calls attention to something or someone) "she made frequent mention of her promotion"; "there was no mention of it"; "the speaker made several references to his wife"
        • S: (n) citation, cite, acknowledgment, credit, reference, mention, quotation (a short note recognizing a source of information or of a quoted passage) "the student's essay failed to list several important citations"; "the acknowledgments are usually printed at the front of a book"; "the article includes mention of similar clinical cases"
        • S: (n) reference point, point of reference, reference (an indicator that orients you generally) "it is used as a reference for comparing the heating and the electrical energy involved"
        • S: (n) reference book, reference, reference work, book of facts (a book to which you can refer for authoritative facts) "he contributed articles to the basic reference work on that topic"
        • S: (n) character, reference, character reference (a formal recommendation by a former employer to a potential future employer describing the person's qualifications and dependability) "requests for character references are all too often answered evasively"
        • S: (n) reference, denotation, extension (the most direct or specific meaning of a word or expression; the class of objects that an expression refers to) "the extension of `satellite of Mars' is the set containing only Demos and Phobos"
        • S: (n) reference, consultation (the act of referring or consulting) "reference to an encyclopedia produced the answer"
        • S: (n) reference, source (a publication (or a passage from a publication) that is referred to) "he carried an armful of references back to his desk"; "he spent hours looking for the source of that quotation"
        • S: (n) address, computer address, reference ((computer science) the code that identifies where a piece of information is stored)
        • S: (n) reference (the relation between a word or phrase and the object or idea it refers to) "he argued that reference is a consequence of conditioned reflexes"
      • Verb
        • S: (v) reference, cite (refer to) "he referenced his colleagues' work"



    • (Matthews, 2007) ⇒ Peter H Matthews. (2007). “Oxford Concise Dictionary of Linguistics." Oxford University Press
      • QUOTE: reference The relation between a part of an utterance and an individual or set of individuals that it identifies. Thus one might say on some specific occasion, 'That man is my brother', where the phrase that man is used as a referring expression whose referent is a specific man whose identity one's addressee must either know or be able to determine. ... Distinguished by philosophers from *sense(2), and by Lyons especially from *denotation. E.g. the man is a phrase that, in such as utterance, is used to refer to a man; the noun man, as a lexical unit, denotes a class of individuals that are thereby called 'men', and has a sense distinguished, in a network of *sense relations, from those of woman, boy, elephant, etc. But these distinctions are not needed for all purposes, and actual usage, as in many entries in this dictionary is more fluid.


    • (Wall et al., 1996) ⇒ Larry Wall, Tom Christiansen, and Randal L. Schwartz. (1996). “Programming Perl, 2nd edition." O'Reilly. ISBN:1565921496
      • reference: A place you look to find a pointer to information stored somewhere else. (See indirection.) References come in two flavors, symbolic references, and hard references.



    • (Frege, 1892) ⇒ Gottlob Frege. (1892). “On Sense and Reference. (Über Sinn und Bedeutung) In: Zeitschrift für Philosophie und Philosophische Kritik, C: 25-50.
      • NOTES: It includes his famous argument on the distinction between Sense and Reference.
      • Note:It presents the example of the two Greek WordsHesperus” and “Phosphorus” that in ancient Greece stood for (invoked the Sense of) the “evening star” and “morning star” which at that time were unknown to have the same Referent: i.e. Venus (a situation that allows for the False BeliefHesperus”≠"Phosphorus"=>True).