Academic Discipline

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An academic discipline is a social institution (of researchers) that researches within some subject area.



  • (Wikipedia, 2015) ⇒ Retrieved:2015-8-2.
    • An academic discipline or field of study is a branch of knowledge that is taught and researched as part of higher education. A scholar's discipline is commonly defined and recognized by the university faculties and learned societies to which he or she belongs and the academic journals in which he or she publishes research. However, there exist no formal criteria for defining an academic discipline.

      Disciplines vary between well-established ones that exist in almost all universities and have well-defined rosters of journals and conferences and nascent ones supported by only a few universities and publications. A discipline may have branches, and these are often called sub-disciplines.

      There is no consensus on how some academic disciplines should be classified (e.g., whether anthropology and linguistics are disciplines of social sciences or fields within the humanities). More generally, the proper criteria for organizing knowledge into disciplines are also open to debate.


  • (Wikipedia, 2014) ⇒ Retrieved:2014-6-22.
    • A discipline (or specialism) is knowledge or a concentration in one academic field of study or profession. A discipline incorporates expertise, people, projects, communities, challenges, studies, inquiry, and research areas that are strongly associated with academic areas of study or areas of professional practice. For example, the branches of science are commonly referred to as the scientific disciplines. Gravitation is strongly associated with the discipline of physics, and is considered to be part of that disciplinary knowledge.

      Disciplinary knowledge associated with academic disciplines and professions are referred to as experts or specialists. However generalists are those who may have studied liberal arts or systems theory.

      Closely associated concepts include multidisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity, transdisciplinarity, and crossdisciplinarity, which address problems arising out of the isolation that accompanies the specialization inherent in disciplines. For example, professionals may encounter trouble communicating across disciplines due to specialization of language and concepts.

      Some researchers find that academic disciplines seem to be replaced by what is known as Mode 2 [1] or "post academic science". [2]

  1. Gibbons, Michael; Camille Limoges, Helga Nowotny, Simon Schwartzman, Peter Scott, & Martin Trow (1994). The new production of knowledge: the dynamics of science and research in contemporary societies. London: Sage.
  2. Ziman, John (2000). Real Science. What it is, and what it means. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


  • (WordNet, 2009) ⇒
    • S: (n) discipline, subject, subject area, subject field, field, field of study, study, bailiwick (a branch of knowledge) "in what discipline is his doctorate?"; "teachers should be well trained in their subject"; "anthropology is the study of human beings"




  • (Wikipedia, 2023) ⇒ Retrieved:2023-5-3.
    • Discipline refers to rule-following behavior, to regulation, order, control and authority.It may also refer to punishment. Discipline is used by those in authority to encourage habits, routines, and automatic mechanisms such as blind obedience. It may be inflicted on others or on oneself. Self-discipline involves the practice of self-restraint, controlling one's emotions, and ignoring impulses.


  • (Wikipedia, 2023) ⇒ Retrieved:2023-7-18.
    • Discipline commonly refers to rule-following behaviour, regulation, order, control and authority.It may also refer to the science of operant conditioning that studies how ideas and behavior are guided and managed with consequences that increase behavior (reinforcements) or decrease behavior (punishment). Discipline is used by all those in authority to encourage routines, and automatic mechanisms such as habits, athletic performance, success, insight, and obedience. Self-discipline involves self-restraint, and deferred gratification that delays emotional impulses by calculated choice.

      All associations have disciplinarians that enforce, modify, and enact rules (contingencies of reinforcement). The role and functions of the disciplinarian may be informal and even unconscious in every day social settings. Historical examples may be easier to spot. Sailing ships (where the failure of crews to work together promptly can have swift adverse consequences due to wind and weather), slave plantations (constantly facing the fear of slave revolt) and the regimentation of the Industrial Revolution's factory system provide obvious historical examples of task driven discipline with heavy reliance on punishment. Education, business, therapy, insurance, and most areas of modern society are shifting away from punishment (harm) in favor of managed discipline (help that reinforces without harm). In his study Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (1975), Michel Foucault analyses the development of punitive disciplining systems in the modern era.

      The Victorian era resulted in the popular use of disciplinarian governance over children.King Edward VIII () had a disciplinarian father, and the English had modelled the royal families during this era. Edward's great-grandmother, Queen Victoria, had championed the role of the family unit during her reign (1837-1901). Disciplinarians will enforce a stricter set of rules that aim at developing children according to theories of order and discipline. Disciplinarians have also been linked to child abuse in numerous cases and biographies.