Evidence Item

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An Evidence Item is a known item that can be used in an evidential statement.



Reference

2015

  • (Wikipedia, 2015) ⇒ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/evidence Retrieved:2015-7-10.
    • Evidence, broadly construed, is anything presented in support of an assertion. This support may be strong or weak. The strongest type of evidence is that which provides direct proof of the truth of an assertion. At the other extreme is evidence that is merely consistent with an assertion but does not rule out other, contradictory assertions, as in circumstantial evidence.

      In law, rules of evidence govern the types of evidence that are admissible in a legal proceeding. Types of legal evidence include testimony, documentary evidence, and physical evidence. The parts of a legal case which are not in controversy are known, in general, as the "facts of the case." Beyond any facts that are undisputed, a judge or jury is usually tasked with being a trier of fact for the other issues of a case. Evidence and rules are used to decide questions of fact that are disputed, some of which may be determined by the legal burden of proof relevant to the case. Evidence in certain cases (e.g. capital crimes) must be more compelling than in other situations (e.g. minor civil disputes), which drastically affects the quality and quantity of evidence necessary to decide a case.

      Scientific evidence consists of observations and experimental results that serve to support, refute, or modify a scientific hypothesis or theory, when collected and interpreted in accordance with the scientific method.

      In philosophy, the study of evidence is closely tied to epistemology, which considers the nature of knowledge and how it can be acquired.

2012

  • http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/learning-formal/supplement.html
    • QUOTE: The basic building block of formal learning theory is the notion of an evidence item. For a general formulation, we may simply begin with a set E of evidence items. In general, nothing need be assumed about this set; in what follows, I will assume that E is at most countable, that is, that there are at most countably many evidence items. Some authors assume that evidence is formulated in first-order logic, typically as literals (e.g., (Earman 1992 ], (Martin and Osherson 1998 ]). In formal models of language learning, the evidence items are strings, representing grammatical strings from the language to be learned. In the example of the Riddle of Induction, the evidence items are G and B, respectively represented in the picture by a transparent and by a filled diamond, so E = {G,B}.

2009

  • http://wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn
    • attest: provide evidence for; stand as proof of; show by one's behavior, attitude, or external attributes; "His high fever attested to his illness ...
    • your basis for belief or disbelief; knowledge on which to base belief; "the evidence that smoking causes lung cancer is very compelling"
    • testify: provide evidence for; "The blood test showed that he was the father"; "Her behavior testified to her incompetence"
    • an indication that makes something evident; "his trembling was evidence of his fear"
    • tell: give evidence; "he was telling on all his former colleague"
    • (law) all the means by which any alleged matter of fact whose truth is investigated at judicial trial is established or disproved