Library and Information Science Discipline
- Library science (or Library and Information science) is an interdisciplinary field that applies the practices, perspectives, and tools of management, information technology, education, and other areas to libraries; the collection, organization, preservation, and dissemination of information resources; and the political economy of information.
Historically, library science has also included archival science. This includes how information resources are organized to serve the needs of select user groups, how people interact with classification systems and technology, how information is acquired, evaluated and applied by people in and outside of libraries as well as cross-culturally, how people are trained and educated for careers in libraries, the ethics that guide library service and organization, the legal status of libraries and information resources, and the applied science of computer technology used in documentation and records management.
- Academic courses in library science typically include collection management, information systems and technology, research methods, cataloging and classification, preservation, reference, statistics and management. Library science is constantly evolving, incorporating new topics like database management, information architecture and Knowledge Management, among others.
- There is no generally agreed distinction between the terms library science, librarianship, library and information science and information science, and to a certain extent they are interchangeable, perhaps differing most significantly in connotation. The term library and information science (LIS) is often used; most librarians consider it as only a terminological variation, intended to emphasize the scientific and technical foundations of the subject and its relationship with information science. LIS should not be confused with information theory, the mathematical study of the concept of information. LIS can also be seen as an integration of the two fields library science and information science, which were separate at one point.
- Information science is an interdisciplinary science primarily concerned with the analysis, collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information. Practitioners within the field study the application and usage of knowledge in organizations, along with the interaction between people, organizations and any existing information systems, with the aim of creating, replacing, improving or understanding information systems. Information science is often (mistakenly) considered a branch of computer science. However, it is actually a broad, interdisciplinary field, incorporating not only aspects of computer science, but often diverse fields such as archival science, cognitive science, commerce, communications, law, library science, management, mathematics, philosophy, public policy, and the social sciences.
- Information science focuses on understanding problems from the perspective of the stakeholders involved and then applying information and other technologies as needed. In other words, it tackles systemic problems first rather than individual pieces of technology within that system. In this respect, information science can be seen as a response to technological determinism, the belief that technology "develops by its own laws, that it realizes its own potential, limited only by the material resources available, and must therefore be regarded as an autonomous system controlling and ultimately permeating all other subsystems of society."  Within information science, attention has been given in recent years to human–computer interaction, groupware, the semantic web, value sensitive design, iterative design processes and to the ways people generate, use and find information. Today this field is called the Field of Information, and there are a growing number of Schools and Colleges of Information.
- Information science should not be confused with information theory, the study of a particular mathematical concept of information, or with library science, a field related to libraries which uses some of the principles of information science.
- The University of Illinois Graduate School of Library and Information Science (GSLIS) is recognized as a premier institution, consistently named the top LIS school in the nation....
- Today, GSLIS is a charter member of the iSchools Project, a community of schools interested in the relationship between information, technology, and people and committed to increasing the visibility of the LIS field....
- People use information for analysis, inquiry, collaboration, and play — and in so doing, change the world. The Graduate School of Library and Information Science is dedicated to shaping the future of information through research, education, and engagement, both public and professional. Our mission is to lead a revolution in the understanding and use of information in science, culture, society, commerce, and the diverse activities of our daily lives.
- (Hjørland, 2007) ⇒ Birger Hjørland. (2007). “Core Concepts in Library and Information Science (LIS)."
- Library and Information Science (LIS)
- LIS as a term is a combination of Library Science and Information Science. It is associated with schools of library and information science, which generally developed from professional schools to research based university institutions during the second half of the twenty century. In the last part of 1960s began schools of librarianship to add the term "information science" to their names. The first school to do this was at the University of Pittsburgh in 1964. More schools followed during the 1970s and 1980s and during the 1990s had almost all library schools in the USA added information science to their names. A similar development have taken place in large parts of the world. For example, in 1997 the ‘Royal School of Librarianship’ in Copenhagen changed its name in English to the ‘Royal School of Library and Information Science’.
- (Rubin, 2004) ⇒ Richard E. Rubin. (2004). “Foundations of Library and Information Science, 2nd edition.” Neal-Schuman Publishers. ISBN:1555705189
- Michael H. Harris. (1995). “History of Libraries in the Western World, 4th edition.” Lanham. 3 - "The distinction between a library and an archive is relatively modern"
- Web Dictionary of Cybernetics and Systems