Resource Description Framework (RDF) Language

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An Resource Description Framework (RDF) Language is a W3C metadata modeling language for describing the interrelationships between two web resources in the form of subject-predicate-object RDF triples.



  • (Wikipedia, 2023) ⇒ Retrieved:2023-6-8.
    • The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standard originally designed as a data model for metadata. It has come to be used as a general method for description and exchange of graph data. RDF provides a variety of syntax notations and data serialization formats, with Turtle (Terse RDF Triple Language) currently being the most widely used notation.

      RDF is a directed graph composed of triple statements. An RDF graph statement is represented by: 1) a node for the subject, 2) an arc that goes from a subject to an object for the predicate, and 3) a node for the object. Each of the three parts of the statement can be identified by a URI. An object can also be a literal value. This simple, flexible data model has a lot of expressive power to represent complex situations, relationships, and other things of interest, while also being appropriately abstract.

      RDF was adopted as a W3C recommendation in 1999. The RDF 1.0 specification was published in 2004, the RDF 1.1 specification in 2014. SPARQL is a standard query language for RDF graphs. RDFS, OWL and SHACL are ontology languages that are used to describe RDF data.



  1. Optimized Index Structures for Querying RDF from the Web Andreas Harth, Stefan Decker, 3rd Latin American Web Congress, Buenos Aires, Argentina, October 31 to November 2, 2005, pp. 71–80



  • (W3, 2011) ⇒
    • RDF is a standard model for data interchange on the Web. RDF has features that facilitate data merging even if the underlying schemas differ, and it specifically supports the evolution of schemas over time without requiring all the data consumers to be changed.
    • RDF extends the linking structure of the Web to use URIs to name the relationship between things as well as the two ends of the link (this is usually referred to as a “triple”). Using this simple model, it allows structured and semi-structured data to be mixed, exposed, and shared across different applications.
    • This linking structure forms a directed, labeled graph, where the edges represent the named link between two resources, represented by the graph nodes. This graph view is the easiest possible mental model for RDF and is often used in easy-to-understand visual explanations.



  • (Obitko, 2007) ⇒ Marek Obitko. (2007). “Translations Between Ontologies in Multi-agent Systems - Ontology Operations].” PhD Thesis, Czech Technical University
    • These triples together form RDF graph. A graph with the triples from figures showing triple and showing literal and with some additional triples are shown in the figure below. The top triple uses type as a predicate from RDF vocabulary to express that joesmith is of type Person.

      A normative syntax for serializing RDF is RDF/XML. The RDF graph from the figure below is written in RDF/XML as follows. Note that it uses XML namespaces with prefixes defined in the beginning of the XML document(...)

      RDF/XML is a normative syntax, however, other serialization formats are used as well. The TURTLE and N3 syntax is less verbose than RDF/XML and so is quite popular. The Notation 3 (N3) is designed as a readable language for data on the Web that goes beyond RDF (it contains logical extensions and rules). The Terse RDF Triple Language (TURTLE) is a RDF-only subset of N3. For the purposes of this text these two languages are interchangeable.