Semantic Model

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A semantic model is a model that represents concepts and their interactions.



  • (Wikipedia, 2015) ⇒ Retrieved:2015-8-4.
    • A conceptual schema is a high-level description of a business's informational needs. It typically includes only the main concepts and the main relationships among them. Typically this is a first-cut model, with insufficient detail to build an actual database. [1]
  1. "Data Modelling Tutorial", Stefano Grazioli, University of Virginia,, retrieved 20 February 2014


    • In the most general sense, a model is anything used in any way to represent anything else. Some models are physical objects, for instance, a toy model which may be assembled, and may even be made to work like the object it represents. Whereas, a conceptual model is a model that exists only in the mind. Conceptual models are used to help us know and understand the subject matter they represent.

      The term conceptual model may be used to refer to models which are formed after a conceptualization process in the mind. Conceptual models represent human intentions or semantics. Conceptualization from observation of physical existence and conceptual modeling are the necessary means human employ to think and solve problems. Concepts are used to convey semantics during various natural languages based communication. Since a concept might map to multiple semantics by itself, an explicit formalization is usually required for identifying and locating the intended semantic from several candidates to avoid misunderstandings and confusions in conceptual models.[1]

  1. Yucong Duan, Christophe Cruz (2011), Formalizing Semantic of Natural Language through Conceptualization from Existence. International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology(2011) 2 (1), pp. 37-42.
  • Wikipedia
    • A mental model captures ideas in a problem domain, while a conceptual model represents 'concepts' (entities) and relationships between them. A Conceptual model in the field of computer science is also known as a domain model. Conceptual modeling should not be confused with other modeling disciplines such as data modelling, logical modelling and physical modelling. The conceptual model is explicitly chosen to be independent of design or implementation concerns, for example, concurrency or data storage. The aim of a conceptual model is to express the meaning of terms and concepts used by domain experts to discuss the problem, and to find the correct relationships between different concepts. The conceptual model attempts to clarify the meaning of various, usually ambiguous terms, and ensure that problems with different interpretations of the terms and concepts cannot occur. Such differing interpretations could easily cause confusion amongst stakeholders, especially those responsible for designing and implementing a solution, where the conceptual model provides a key artifact of business understanding and clarity. Once the domain concepts have been modeled, the model becomes a stable basis for subsequent development of applications in the domain. The concepts of the conceptual model can be mapped into physical design or implementation constructs using either manual or automated code generation approaches. The realization of conceptual models of many domains can be combined to a coherent platform.

      A conceptual model can be described using various notations, such as UML or OMT for object modelling, or IE or IDEF1X for Entity Relationship Modelling. In UML notation, the conceptual model is often described with a class diagram in which classes represent concepts, associations represent relationships between concepts and role types of an association represent role types taken by instances of the modelled concepts in various situations. In ER notation, the conceptual model is described with an ER Diagram in which entities represent concepts, cardinality and optionality represent relationships between concepts. Regardless of the notation used, it is important not to compromise the richness and clarity of the business meaning depicted in the conceptual model by expressing it directly in a form influenced by design or implementation concerns.

      This is often used for defining different processes in a particular Company or Institute.





  • (Gruber, 1993) ⇒ Tom Gruber. (1993). “A translation approach to portable ontology specifications." Knowledge Acquisition, 2(5):199--220.
    • A conceptualization is an abstract, simplified view of the world that we wish to represent for some purpose. Every knowledge base, knowledge-based system, or knowledge-level agent is committed to some conceptualization, explicitly or implicitly. An ontology is an explicit specification of a conceptualization..