2005 DCMIGlossary051107

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Subject Headings: Dublin Core Standard, Subject Area Glossary.

Notes

Cited By

Quotes

  • administrative metadata
    • Metadata used in managing and administering information resources, e.g., location or donor information. Includes rights and access information, data on the creation and preservation of the digital object.
  • American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)
    • A scheme that provides standard numeric values to represent letters, numbers, punctuation marks and other characters. The use of standard values allows computers and computer programs to exchange data.
  • application profile
    • In DCMI usage, an application profile is a declaration of the metadata terms an organization, information resource, application, or user community uses in its metadata. In a broader sense, it includes the set of metadata elements, policies, and guidelines defined for a particular application or implementation. The elements may be from one or more element sets, thus allowing a given application to meet its functional requirements by using metadata elements from several element sets including locally defined sets. For example, a given application might choose a specific subset of the Dublin Core elements that meets its needs, or may include elements from the Dublin Core, another element set, and several locally defined elements, all combined in a single schema. An application profile is not considered complete without documentation that defines the policies and best practices appropriate to the application.
  • Appropriate values
    • Best practice for a particular Element or Qualifier may vary by context. Definitions may provide some guidance; other information may be found in "Using Dublin Core".
  • Audience
    • Dublin Core element to record a class of entity for whom the resource is intended or useful. A class of entity may be determined by the creator or the publisher or by a third party. See also "Using Dublin Core".
  • Author
  • authority control
    • A set of rules or procedures that assist in the maintenance of consistent forms of names or terms within a database.
  • authority file
    • A collection of authority records.
  • authority record
    • A record that registers the preferred form of a personal or corporate name, geographic region or subject term. It may indicate variant forms of the established heading, biographical or cultural information associated with the heading, as well as related headings.
  • Basic Semantics Register
    • An ISO Standard ISO/TS 16668:2000 which identifies and defines semantic components for use in data exchange.
  • best practice
    • Guidance and documentation to describe and standardize the use of metadata elements that best support a community's needs.
  • case-sensitive
    • Lower and upper case letters are not treated as if they were interchangeable; e.g. 'a' is not the same as 'A'.
  • CEN
    • European Committee for Standarization (Comité Européen de Normalisation; Europäisches Komitee für Normung) "CEN is contributing to the objectives of the European Union and European Economic Area with voluntary technical standards which promote free trade, the safety of workers and consumers, interoperability of networks, environmental protection, exploitation of research and development programmes, and public procurement." http://www.cenorm.be/cenorm/index.htm
  • classification
    • A logical scheme for arrangement of knowledge, usually by subject. Classification schema are alpha and/or numeric; for example, Library of Congress Classification, Dewey Classification, Universal Decimal Classification.
  • controlled vocabulary
    • A prescribed set of consistently used and carefully defined terms.
  • Contributor
    • The Dublin Core element used to designate the entity responsible for making contributions to the content of the resource. Examples of a Contributor include a person, an organization or a service. Typically, the name of a Contributor should be used to indicate the entity. See also "Using Dublin Core".
  • Coverage
    • The Dublin Core element used to designate the extent or scope of the content of the resource. Coverage will typically include spatial location (a place name or geographic co-ordinates), temporal period (a period label, date, or date range) or jurisdiction (such as a named administrative entity). Recommended best practice is to select a value from a controlled vocabulary, and that, where appropriate, named places or time periods be used in preference to numeric identifiers such as sets of co-ordinates or date ranges. See also "Using Dublin Core".
  • Creator
    • The Dublin Core element used to designate the entity primarily responsible for making the content of the resource. Examples of a Creator include a person, an organization, or a service. See also "Using Dublin Core".
  • Date
    • The Dublin Core element used to designate the date associated with an event in the life cycle of the resource. Typically, Date will be associated with the creation or availability of the resource. See also "Using Dublin Core".
  • DCMES
    • Dublin Core Metadata Element Set. See Dublin Core.
  • DCMI
    • See Dublin Core Metadata Initiative
  • DCMI term
    • A DCMI term is a DCMI element, a DCMI qualifier or term from a DCMI-maintained controlled vocabulary. Each DCMI term is defined in a DCMI recommendation and is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) within a DCMI namespace.
  • Description
    • The Dublin Core element used to designate a textual description of the content of the resource. See also "Using Dublin Core".
  • DCSV
    • See Dublin Core Structured Value
  • descriptive metadata
    • Metadata that supports the discovery of an object.
  • digital tourist
    • An inexperienced searcher in the digital environment who does not possess knowledge of community- specific vocabularies. The Dublin Core provides a rudimentary vocabulary, or "pidgin language" for information discovery when exploring new digital territories. Coined by Ricky Erway at the Metadata Workshop on Metadata for Networked Images, September 24-25, 1996.
  • discovery software
    • A computer application designed to simplify, assist and expedite the process of finding information resources.
  • Digital Object Identifier
    • DOI was developed by the International DOI Foundation as a system for identifying and exchanging intellectual property in the digital environment. It provides a mechanism to link a searcher to digital content and facilitates copyright management.
  • Document Type Definition (DTD)
    • In SGML or XML, a formal description of the components of a specific document or class of documents. DTDs provide a formal grammar used for machine processing (parsing) of documents expressed in SGML or XML. A DTD description includes:
      • The containers or elements that make up the document; e.g., paragraphs, headings, list items, figures, tables, etc.]]
      • The logical structure of the document; e.g., chapters containing sections, etc.]]
      • Additional information associated with elements (known as attributes); e.g., identifiers, date stamps, etc.
  • document-like object (DLO)
    • Originally defined as an entity that resembles a document from the standpoint that it is substantially text-based and shares other properties of a document; e.g., electronic mail messages or spreadsheets. The definition was expanded at the 3rd DC workshop to refer to any discrete information resource that are characterized by being fixed (i.e., having identical content for each user). Examples include text, images, movies, and performances.
  • dot.syntax
    • A mechanism for refining the meaning of the element in HTML; for example, <META NAME="DC.Title.Alternative" CONTENT="Title">
  • DTD
    • See Document Type Definition
  • Dublin Core
    • The Dublin Core is a metadata element set. It includes all DCMI terms (that is, refinements, encoding schemes, and controlled vocabulary terms) intended to facilitate discovery of resources. The Dublin Core has been in development since 1995 through a series of focused invitational workshops that gather experts from the library world, the networking and digital library research communities, and a variety of content specialties. See the Dublin Core Web Site for additional information.
  • Dublin Core Metadata Initiative
    • The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is the body responsible for the ongoing maintenance of Dublin Core. DCMI is currently hosted by the OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc., a not-for-profit international library consortium. The work of DCMI is done by contributors from many institutions in many countries. DCMI is organized into Communities and Task Groups to address particular problems and tasks (see the DCMI Work structure page). Participation in DCMI is open to all interested parties. Instructions for joining can be found at the DCMI web site on the DCMI Contact information page.
  • Dublin Core Simple
    • See Simple Dublin Core
  • Dublin Core Structured Values
    • DCSV recognizes two types of substrings: labels and values. A label is the name of the type of a value, and a value is the data itself. A value that is comprised of components, i.e. a value which has its own label and value, is called a structured value. Punctuation supports the parsing of the DCSV.
  • Dublin Core Terms
    • See DCMI term
  • EAD
    • see EAD (Encoded Archival Description)
  • electronic information resource
    • An information resource that is maintained in electronic, or computerized format, and may be accessed, searched and retrieved via electronic networks or other electronic data processing technologies (e.g., CD-ROM)
  • element
    • An element is a property of a resource. As intended here, "properties" are attributes of resources -- characteristics of a resource, such as a Title, Publisher, or Subject. Elements are formally defined terms which are used to describe attributes and properties of a resource.
  • embedded metadata
    • Metadata that is maintained and stored within the object it describes; the opposite of stand-alone metadata.
  • Encoded Archival Description
    • An SGML DTD that represents a highly structured way to create digital finding aids for a grouping of archival or manuscript materials. The standard is maintained in the Network Development and MARC Standards Office of the Library of Congress (LC) in partnership with the Society of American Archivists. For more information see http://lcweb.loc.gov/ead/.
  • encoding scheme
    • An encoding scheme provides contextual information or parsing rules that aid in the interpretation of a term value. Such contextual information may take the form of controlled vocabularies, formal notations, or parsing rules. If an encoding scheme is not understood by a client or agent, the value may still be useful to a human reader. There are two types of encoding schemes: Vocabulary Encoding Schemes and Syntax Encoding Schemes
  • extensible
    • Having the potential to be expanded in scope, area or size. In the case of Dublin Core, the ability to extend a core set of metadata with additional elements.
  • Extensible Markup Language (XML)
    • A subset of Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), a widely used international text processing standard. XML is being designed to bring the power and flexibility of generic SGML to the Web, while maintaining interoperability with full SGML and HTML. For more information, see http://www.w3.org/XML/
  • Format
    • The Dublin Core element used to designate the physical or digital manifestation of the resource. See also "Using Dublin Core".
  • FRBR
  • GILS
    • See GILS (Global Information Locator Service)
  • glossary
    • An alphabetized list of terms with definitions often created by an organization to reflect its needs. Normally lacks hierarchical arrangement or cross references. Also known as a term list.
  • granularity
    • The level of detail at which an information object or resource is viewed or described.
  • Harvester
  • HayStack
    • An MIT project to develop to personal management systems that would all individuals to organize their information objects, such as email, web pages, documents, images, calendars. The information can be categorize and create relationships that are meaningful for themselves. See http://haystack.lcs.mit.edu/
  • Identifier
    • The Dublin Core element that is an unambiguous reference to the resource within a given context. Recommended best practice is to identify the resource by means of a string or number conforming to a formal identification system. See also "Using Dublin Core".
  • IEEE LOM
    • See IEEE LOM (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Learning Object Metadata)
  • IMS
    • See IMS Instructional Management Systems
  • IMT
    • See Internet Media Type
  • INDECS
    • See INDECS (Interoperability of Data in D-Commerce Systems)
  • indexing
    • The process of evaluating information entities and creating terms that aid in finding and accessing the entity. Index terms may be in natural language or controlled vocabulary or a classification notation.
  • indexing program
    • Computer software used to order things; frequently used to refer to software that alphabetizes some or all of the terms in one or more electronic documents.
  • information resource
    • Any entity, electronic or otherwise, capable of conveying or supporting intelligence or knowledge; e.g. a book, a letter, a picture, a sculpture, a database, a person. See also DLO
  • instantiation
    • An identifiable occurrence or occasion of something; in the case of Dublin Core, a specific occurrence of an information resource.
  • Internet Commons
    • The global Internet environment, collection of information-bearing repositories whose data can be accessed through the Internet.
  • Internet Media Type (IMT)
  • interoperability
    • The ability of different types of computers, networks, operating systems, and applications to work together effectively, without prior communication, in order to exchange information in a useful and meaningful manner. There are three aspects of interoperability: semantic, structural and syntactical.
  • Interoperability Qualifiers
    • Additional metadata used either to refine the semantics of a Dublin Core metadata element's value, or to provide more information about the encoding scheme used for the value.
  • Keywords
    • See Subject
  • Language
    • The Dublin Core element used to designate the language of the intellectual content of the resource. Recommended best practice for the values of the Language element is defined by RFC 3066. See also "Using Dublin Core".
  • literal
    • A literal or "appropriate literal" is the value of any given metadata entity that can be either a hyperlink or a string value (literal). A literal affords a great deal of flexibility and power, but increases complexity. Metadata should as well include an appropriate literal that reflects the base value of the metadata entity. For example, in these fragments: creator = "Public, John Q." creator = " http://authority.org/public-john-q-1234" the first has a value expressed as an appropriate literal whereas the second has a (hypothetical) link to an authority structure. It is not entirely clear what a person or application will find at the end of the link, so the metadata should contain an appropriate literal for simple discovery purposes.
  • MARC
    • See MARC (Machine-Readable Cataloging Record)
  • META tag
    • The HTML element used to demarcate metadata on a Web page. <META> </META>.
  • metadata
    • In general, "data about data;" functionally, "structured data about data." Metadata includes data associated with either an information system or an information object for purposes of description, administration, legal requirements, technical functionality, use and usage, and preservation. . In the case of Dublin Core, information that expresses the intellectual content, intellectual property and/or instantiation characteristics of an information resource. See Section 1.1 of this guide. For a history of the term See Caplan,pp. 1-3.
  • metadata record
    • A syntactically correct representation of the descriptive information (metadata) for an information resource. In the case of Dublin Core, a representation of the Dublin Core elements that has been defined for the resource. The majority of metadata records and record fragments in this document are presented in HTML syntax.
  • metadata schema registry
    • A publicly accessible system that records the semantics, structure and interchange formats of any type of metadata. A formal authority, or agency, maintains and manages the development and evolution of a metadata registry. The authority is responsible for policies pertaining to registry contents and operation. See also http://www.dlib.org/dlib/may02/wagner/05wagner.html
  • METS (Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard
    • See METS (Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard
  • MODS
    • See MODS (Metadata Object Description Schema)
  • Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
    • The standard for attaching files to Internet e-mail messages. Attached files may be text, graphics, spreadsheets, documents, sound files, etc.
  • National Information Standards Organization
    • NISO, accredited by ANSI, develops and promotes technical standards used in a wide variety of information services.
  • networked resource
    • An object that is available electronically via a network.
  • OAI
    • See Open Archives Initiative
  • OAI-PMH
    • See Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting
  • OCLC
    • See Online Computer Library Center
  • ONIX
    • See ONIX (ONline InformationeXchange)
  • Ontology
    • A hierarchical structure that formally defines the semantic relationship of a set of concepts. Used to create structured / controlled vocabularies for the discovery or exchange of information. A thesaurus, like the AAT is an example.
  • Online Computer Library Center (OCLC)
    • The major source of cataloging data for libraries around the world; located in Dublin, Ohio, US. For more information, see http://www.oclc.org/.
  • Open Archives Initiative
    • "Develops and promotes interoperability standards that aim to facilitate the efficient dissemination of content. The Open Archives Initiative has its roots in an effort to enhance access to e-print archives as a means of increasing the availability of scholarly communication" For more information see http://www.openarchives.org/organization/index.html.
  • OpenURL
    • A method for describing resources and associated resources that are referenced in a network environment. It defines the mentods for transporting these descriptions between networked systems. NISO standard NISO Z39.88-2003 (still in draft). The Standard has been issued in two parts and it available for comment through California Institute of Technology http://library.caltech.edu/openurl/Public_Comments.htm
  • Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting
    • The Protocol "provides an application-independent interoperability framework based on metadata harvesting. There are two classes of participants in the OAI-PMH framework: Data Providers administer systems that support the OAI-PMH as a means of exposing metadata; and Service Providers use metadata harvested via the OAI-PMH as a basis for building value-added services. " For more information see http://www.openarchives.org/organization/index.html.
  • OWL
    • Web ontology language http://www.w3.org/TR/owl-features/. OWL is a language for describing ontologies and schema. It can specify concepts and their relationships. OWL/XDD (XML declaration description) allows a means to express complex rules and constraints.
  • Persistent Uniform Resource Locator
    • An approach to the URL permanence problem proposed by OCLC. A PURL is a public alias for a document. A PURL remains stable, while the document's background URL will change as it is managed (e.g. moved) over time. A PURL is created by a Web administrator who is registered as a PURL "owner" and who maintains a mapping of the PURL to a current and functioning URL. A PURL is a form of URN.
  • POI (PURL-based Object Identifier)
  • property
  • Provenance
    • Dublin Core element used for making statements of any changes in ownership and custody of the resource since its creation that are significant for its authenticity, integrity and interpretation. The statement may include a description of any changes successive custodians made to the resource. See also "Using Dublin Core".
  • Publisher
    • The Dublin Core element used to designate the entity responsible for making the resource available. Examples of a Publisher include a person, an organization, or a service. Typically, the name of a Publisher should be used to indicate the entity. See also "Using Dublin Core".
  • PURL
    • See Persistent Uniform Resource Locator
  • qualifier
    • "Qualifiers" is the generic heading traditionally used for terms now usually referred to specifically as Element Refinements or Encoding Schemes. A qualifier must follow the Dumb-Down Principle. There are two broad categories of qualifiers: Encoding schema and Element refinement.
  • Qualified Dublin Core
    • Qualified Dublin Core includes an additional element, Audience, as well as a group of element refinements (also called qualifiers) that refine the semantics of the elements in ways that may be useful in resource discovery
  • record
  • registry
    • A system to provide management of metadata elements. See also metadata schema registry The DCMI Registry Working Group (WG) is the development of a metadata registry providing authoritative information regarding the DCMI vocabulary and the relationship between terms in that vocabulary.
  • Relation
    • The Dublin Core element used to designate A reference to a related resource. Recommended best practice is to reference the resource by means of a string or number conforming to a formal identification system. See also "Using Dublin Core".
  • Request for Comment (RFC)
    • A Request for Comment (RFC) is the process of establishing a standard on the Internet. Discussion of the proposed standard on the Internet is facilitated by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Once approved, the standard receives a unique number which identifies it; e.g., RFC See http://www.isi.edu/rfc-editor/. and http://www.ietf.org/rfc.html
  • resource
    • A resource is anything that has identity. Familiar examples include an electronic document, an image, a service (e.g., "today's weather report for Los Angeles"), and a collection of other resources. Not all resources are network "retrievable"; e.g., human beings, corporations, and bound books in a library can also be considered resources. http://dublincore.org/documents/2003/04/02/dc-xml-guidelines/
  • Resource Description Framework (RDF)
    • The basic language for writing metadata; a foundation which provides a robust flexible architecture for processing metadata on the Internet. RDF will retain the capability to exchange metadata between application communities, while allowing each community to define and use the metadata that best serves their needs. For more information see http://www.w3.org/RDF/
  • resource discovery
    • The process through which one searches and retrieves an information resource.
  • Resource Type
    • See Type.
  • Resource Description
    • See Description.
  • Resource Identifier
    • See Identifier
  • Rights
    • The Dublin Core element used to provide a link to information about rights held in and over the resource. Typically a Rights element will contain a rights management statement for the resource, or reference a service providing such information. Rights information often encompasses Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), Copyright, and various Property Rights. If the rights element is absent, no assumptions can be made about the status of these and other rights with respect to the resource. See also "Using Dublin Core".
  • ROADS
    • Resource Organisation And Discovery in Subject based services. A UK funded project whose aim is to develop discovery software for Internet resources.
  • schema or scheme (plurals schemas or schemata; schemes)]]
    • In general terms, any organization, coding, outline or plan of concepts. In terms of metadata, a systematic, orderly combination of elements or terms. In terms of DCMI term declarations represented in XML or RDF schema language, schemas are machine-processable specifications which define the structure and syntax of metadata specifications in a formal schema language. In terms of an encoding scheme, is a set of rules for encoding information that supports a specific community of users. See also Encoding scheme.
  • SCORM
    • See SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model)
  • search engine
    • A utility capable of returning references to relevant information resources in response to a query.
  • semantic interoperability
    • Ability to search for digital information across heterogeneous distributed databases whose metadata schemas have been mapped to one another. It is achieved through agreements about content description standards; for example, Dublin Core, Anglo-American Cataloging Rules.
  • SICI
    • Serial Item and Contribution Identifier (ANSI/NISO Z39.56-1996 Vers. 2) A numeric notation to identify serial issues and articles uniquely regardless of their distribution medium (paper, electronic, microform).
  • Simple Dublin Core
    • The fifteen Dublin Core elements used without qualifiers, that is without element refinement or encoding schemes. Sometimes referred to as Dublin Core simple.
  • software agent
    • A computer program that carries out tasks on behalf of another entity. Frequently used to reference a program that searches the Internet for information meeting the specified requirements of an individual user.
  • Source
    • The Dublin Core element used to designate a reference to a resource from which the present resource is derived. The present resource may be derived from the Source resource in whole or part. Recommended best practice is to reference the resource by means of a string or number conforming to a formal identification system. See also "Using Dublin Core".
  • stand-alone metadata
    • Metadata that is created, maintained and stored independently of the object it describes. The opposite of embedded metadata.
  • structural metadata
    • Structural metadata defines the digital object's internal organization and is needed for display and navigation of that object.
  • Subject
    • The Dublin Core element used to describe the content of the resource. The element may use controlled vocabularies or keywords or phrases that describe the subject or content of the resource. See also "Using Dublin Core".
  • Subject Headings
    • An alphabetical list of words or phrases that represent a concept that is under authority control, e.g., the Library of Congress Subject Headings.
  • switching language
    • A mediating language used to establish equivalencies among various indexing languages. Dublin Core has been viewed as a switching "language" between various metadata schemas.
  • syntactic interoperability
    • Achieved by marking up our data in a similar fashion so we can share the data and so that our machines can understand and take the data apart in sensible ways; for example, XML, EAD and MARC.
  • Syntax Encoding Schemes
    • Syntax Encoding Schemes indicate that the value is a string formatted in accordance with a formal notation, such as "2000-01-01" as the standard expression of a date.
  • taxonomy
    • In general terms, systematic classification according to principles or general laws. In digital terms, automated classification of documents in a hierarchy based on information gathered by a metacrawler. May refer to a classification of DCMI terms. A classification system such as Library of Congress Classification is an example of a taxonomy.
  • technical metadata
    • Metadata that documents the creation and the digital characteristics of the files.
  • Text Encoding Initiative (TEI)
    • An international project to develop guidelines for the preparation and interchange of electronic texts for scholarly research as well as a broad range of other language industry uses. The TEI DTD is an SGML Document Type Definition for encoding literary works. For more information, seehttp://www.tei-c.org/
  • thesaurus
    • A structured vocabulary make up of names, words, and other information, typically including synonyms and/or hierarchical relationships for the purpose of cross-referencing in order to organize a collection of concepts for reference and retrieval. See the ANSI/NISO Standard for thesaurus construction Z39.19-2003 (R1998; ISO 2788). A controlled vocabulary of terms or concepts that are structured hierarchically (parent/child relationships) or as equivalences (synonyms), and related terms (associative). See also Subject headings and glossary. A thesaurus is a taxonomy.
  • Title
    • The Dublin Core element used to designate the name given to the resource. Typically, a Title will be a name by which the resource is formally known. See also "Using Dublin Core".

References

,
  author volume date title type journal titleUrl doi note year
2005 DCMIGlossary051107 DCMI Glossary Dublin Core Metadata Initiative http://dublincore.org/documents/2005/11/07/usageguide/glossary.shtml 2005